(Guest blog) I just came from four days at BUKIT LAWANG near GUNUNG LEUSER NP in Sumatra…Such an amazing place and it’s really tragic the way that the town has yet to recover from the 2003 flood. It needs only one thing – and that’s tourists. Pre Nov.2003 Bukit Lawang was an absolute oasis for travelers to northern Sumatra and we made up a HUGE part of the local economy.
Amlapura is the largest city on East Bali and the capital of the Karangasem region. The original name of the city was also Karangasem, but the name was supposedly changed in order to confuse the evil spirits and prevent them from burying the city under volcanic ash. During the eruption of Gunung Agung in 1963 the city became isolated from the rest of Bali for three years.
Malang is located between two massive groups of mountains with Semuru, the highest mountain on Java, and the national park Bromo-Tengger to the east. The climate up here is relatively cool. The Sungai Brantas river floats through the city, which were founded by the Dutch at the end of the 18th century as a center of tobacco trade. The Dutch had an important military base here until 1949, and Malang was the capital of the district of the same name.
Malang is a trade center in an agricultural region were the most important crops are sugar, rice, coffee, tea, corn and peanuts. The main income is mainly production of textiles and soap, timber and tobacco. There is also a university here, Brawijaya, and some tourist industry. Population is about 700.000.
Some of the buildings from the colonial period can still be seen, like the town hall, Balai Kuta, and the town is known for its “colonial atmosphere”. A popular place for the locals, especially the children, is Taman Rekreasi Senaputra, a culture and recreational park. There are several hotels and restaurants in Malang. The biggest attraction here must however be the beautiful landscape. In addition there are some temples not far away known as the Singosari temples. They were built to honor the Singosari dynasty, the predecessors of the Majapahit kingdom. Candi Singosari, built for king Kertanegara, and Candi Sumberawan are both close to the Singosari village north of Malang. Candi Jago and Candi Kidal are both located in Tampung east of Malang.
An easy way to Malang is by train or bus from Surabaya, which takes about two hours. From Malang you can for example travel further to Kediri over Batu. This road passes through some beautiful and changing scenery, passing volcanoes, rich farmland, hot springs, deep valleys and dense jungle. Along the coast south of Malang there are some popular beaches, actually they belong to the Malang district which stretches all the way south to the Indian ocean.
Gamelan music is the sum of diverse foreign influences. Pitch relationships from China, bronze instruments from southeast Asia, drums and modal practice from India, bowed strings from the middle east, and even military styles from Europe contributed to the traditional music we hear in Java and Bali today.
The First Gamelan
Among the earliest evidence of gamelan instruments is a series of stone relief carvings on the Borobudur Buddhist temple in Central Java (ca. 800 ad).
Borobudur shows the world’s first record of a bar percussion instrument. It appears to be a gambang style “xylophone” with ten wide bars resting over a trough resonator. We have no way to tell, but the bars were most likely made of wood or metal. The instrument is shown being played with two sticks with large, presumably padded, balls on the ends. Cymbals resembling Balinese ceng ceng kopyak used in modern processional music can be seen as well as two-headed hand drums which appear to be of both Javanese barrel shape and Balinese conical styles.
The relief’s of Borobudur and other central Javanese temples of the period, including Prambanan and Candi Sari, depict many other instruments including zithers, lutes, harps, vessel drums (gatam), and transverse flutes. Most are extinct in Indonesia today and may have never really existed on the islands, possibly carved from memory by mainland artisans. Only the bar instrument, cymbals, and drums remain. Notably absent from all relief’s of this period are gongs.
The First Gongs
Gongs first appear in the carvings of the thirteenth and fourteenth centuries, among temples of the Majapahit Hindu empire. These depictions show small gongs, often mounted in pairs on a stick or hanging singly from a cord in the hand and played with a padded mallet. Also evident are significant advancements in bar instruments since the time of Borobudur, including four-mallet gambang style xylophones of a type still used in Bali for cremation rites. Suspended bar gangsa and gender as well as saron with resting bars can be found. The earliest evidence of tuned acoustic resonators, bamboo tubes which amplify the sound of the bars, also appears in this period.
Notable in the east Javanese relief’s are images resembling sitar and other gourd resonated plucked string instruments like those used today in India. Many drums depicted in this period also strongly resemble Indian mridanggam and pakawaj. These instruments became extinct in Indonesia, and again may have never existed, but their presence indicates a powerful foreign cultural infusion.
Gongs most probably did not originate in Indonesia. There is no evidence of the development of bronze gongs in Indonesia before the thirteenth century. They simply appear in the record as highly refined instruments, complete with an embossed center and deep shell. Mainland Asia, however, displays a much wider variety of bronze gong styles, including shallower shells, flat faces, and a clear developmental lineage.
Ancient literature suggests that gongs may have been known and used in Indonesia as early as the ninth century. Their original use may have been as instruments of battle, a sound used to encourage soldiers as it instilled fear in their enemies. But, their absence from the earliest stone record suggests that they were either relatively uncommon until that time. Perhaps they were not an instrument of the ruling class, or had no religiously important purpose.
Majapahit is where all the primary elements of modern gamelan came together. Bronze gongs combined with Indian and southeast Asian influences and the “indigenous” music and instruments of the central Javanese cultures which built Borobudur make east Java the birthplace of gamelan as we know it today. Influence of the Majapahit was strong throughout Indonesia and the southern Philippines and reached deep into the mainland of southeast Asia.
Bali and Java Split
In the fourteenth century, people from the middle east introduced the religion of Islam and the fall of the Majapahit empire began. Those who wished to remain Hindu were exiled to Bali, where they remained relatively isolated for hundreds of years.
The gamelan we hear in Bali today is a direct, almost pure, descendant of the music of the Majapahit period. Many instruments in Bali are exactly the same as those recorded by stone carvers in east Java over six centuries ago. But, while the tools of the trade have remained similar, the music has changed and developed. Every generation of musicians in Bali puts their personal stamp on the music. An added variation here, a new section there, or another composition for a particular ritual, add up considerably over six hundred years. Changes in popular taste also had an effect.
In Java, the new Islamic Mataram empire began and music and instrumentations changed considerably. In Bali, we still find primarily homogenous ensembles of bronze, iron, bamboo, etc. But, in central Java, this diverse instrumentation was combined into a single orchestra. Also combined were the two scales, slendro and pelog, which had remained exclusive to certain ensembles and rituals in Majapahit times. While scales and even melodies may have remained the same, theories behind them were amended to create the Javanese “patet” modal system.
The Javanese Mataram empire is responsible for advancing bronze foundry techniques to produce the very large gongs which have become a staple of modern Javanese and Balinese gamelan. The village of Semarang on the north coast of central Java became the new Indonesian center for gong making, supplying instruments to most of Java, Sumatra, Bali, Borneo, and surrounding islands.
The use and purpose of gamelan music in Java was also revised by Mataram. Originally, gamelan was played in outdoor temples for religious rites, to inspire trance and to invite ancestral spirits. But, in Java religious worship was redirected to the royal courts and the old Hindu and Buddhist temples were left to decay. This change of environment gave rise to many of the aesthetic differences between Balinese and Javanese musical styles. Music in Java moved from open air temples to large roofed platforms within the royal court. Mallets were softened to allow the instruments to reverberate within the space in a more pleasing manner. Forms were also slowed down and elongated to take advantage of the new acoustics and lend austerity to the court. Music became largely a cerebral pursuit of the aristocracy and musicians became servants of the courts.
The Twentieth Century
The last hundred years has brought great changes in both Balinese and Javanese music. Older Balinese musicians speak of times when tempos were slow and variations less intense. Older Javanese musicians relate stories of now rare grand court events and lost compositions. Balinese kebyar style is a product of this century, as is the bonang imbal and kembangan playing techniques so typical of today’s Javanese sound.
Gamelan music continues to change and evolve in both style and purpose. Government performing arts schools are the new patrons driving the future. Students in these institutions are required to create new music and dance, expanding the scope and popularity of gamelan both at home and around the world.
Tampaksiring was long time ago a center for the Hindu religion on Bali, and has within it’s borders two of the most sacred temples and relics on the island; Tirta Empul and Gunung Kawi. The Tampaksiring area is part of the Gianyar district and located about 40 km north of Denpasar and 14 km northeast of Ubud, along a road leading all the way to the Batur mountain. Gunung Kawi is two km south of the city center, while Tirta Empul is one km to the north. The direction to both sites are properly marked.
Just south of Ubud you will find the small Mas village, which is the place to go to find wood carvings and other good quality crafts made of wood, like furniture. Even if Mas means gold, it is basically woodcarving that has brought fame to the place. Some of the best woodcarvers on Bali today can be found in Mas, often surrounded by young students who want to learn how to become a master.
Bedulu was once capital of the old Balinese kingdom Pejeng; a long tongue of land between the Petanu and Pakrisan rivers. Today this area is home to some of the most famous and appreciated monuments and relics on Bali, like Yeh Pulu and Goa Gajah. Pejeng was the last kingdom that surrendered to the Majapahit empire from Java, which invaded Bali in 1343.
Sanur is the area on Bali where mass tourism first got a foothold. The 11 floor high Bali Beach Hotel, the first large hotel on Bali, was built in 1965. It is still the highest building on Bali, due to a law made after the completion that bans any building higher than a palm tree. High buildings was considered to be a lack of respect for the gods, and the law is still valid all over the island.
Over the last 20 years Denpasar has seen an incredible growth, and has taken over for Singaraja as the capital of Bali. The city used to be the capital of Badung, but became in 1992 together with Sanur, Benoa harbor and Pulau Seringan a separate district. The name means something like “close to the market”, and the town’s main market, Pasar Badung, is the largest on Bali. Denpasar do, more than any other town on Bali, look like the large, crowded cities of Java.
Lovina is a coastal area located just southwest of Singaraja in the Buleleng region. It covers an area of about 8 km including the Anturan, Tukad Mungga, Temukus and Kalikbukbuk villages. Lovina has a growing number of shops, restaurants and hotels, but is not by far as crowded as Kuta. The hotels are spread along the coast, with the majority in Kalikbukbuk, which also has some activity in the evenings.